Bone regeneration refers to a dental procedure in which bone which has been lost or is missing is restored by a surgeon using either synthetic materials, human cadaver bone or cow bone as filler. This filler eventually becomes surrounded or replaced by new healthy bone. If an extraction is performed the filler is place in the fresh socket. If a patient has a boney defect the filler is placed with a membrane covering it that keeps it in place and allows new bone to repair the defect. This process often works because the membrane keeps other types of cells from invading the space and only allow a patients bone cells to fill in the defect.
This procedure is often used to improve boney architecture so that in the future an implant can be placed in the improved or preserved site.